The Rhizome Digest merged into the Rhizome News in November 2008. These pages serve as an archive for 6-years worth of discussions and happenings from when the Digest was simply a plain-text, weekly email.

Subject: RHIZOME DIGEST: 6.28.02
Date: Fri, 28 Jun 2002 13:31:49 -0400

RHIZOME DIGEST: June 28, 2002


+editor's note+
1. Rachel Greene: new

2. Ann Le Pore: Open Call for Eyebeam MID Production Artists
3. you: Now open to Entries; Art on the Net 2002 -- "9.11"

4. marty AT ap0202.01 release

5. RSG: How We Made Our Own Carnivore

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Date: 6.27.02
From: Rachel Greene (rachel AT
Subject: new

We all know a rhizome is not fixed or constant, and so we happily
announce's facelift and informational and technical
realignment! Please check out, and try posting to
the Raw list via the web site, or reading Raw in real time in the Art +
Text section (go to Fresh Texts). New features include a calendar of new
media art events, an opportunities list, and a community directory.

Rhizomers can now have more input to, like designating what
should be archived (and how), and deciding which texts merit placement
on the homepage. If interested in playing an active role with Rhizome's
archive of texts about new media art (which is to say helping to create
a history of new media art), email me at rachel AT with
Superuser in the subject line.

Post your thoughts about the revamped site (via the web site or email to
list AT And thank you Alex Galloway for building it!

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Date: 6.25.02
From: Ann Le Pore (aelepore AT
Subject: Open Call for Eyebeam MID Production Artists Applications

Open Call for Eyebeam MID Production Artists Applications

Eyebeam's Moving Image Division announces an open call for applications
to its annual 2002 - 2003 Production Artists Workshop. PAW provides
vital production experience to recent graduates from film, video and
computer art programs. Production Artists are provided with a salary,
health benefits and unlimited access to the MID Studio during their
one-year term. During their stay, these artists benefit from instruction
from technical experts, critiques, and interaction with graphic
specialists from MID's Advisory Council. They split their time between
developing their own moving image work, and interacting with senior
artists on larger projects, creating work for commissions and for the
MID Studio Co-op. Production Artist work is presented publicly at the
end of their one-year term. The division hires four artists each year
for the program, concentrating in four different areas: technical
direction, compositing/texture/lighting, modeling, and animation.

To apply, please send a completed application form (link address), your
resume, and a copy of your VHS or DVD portfolio reel by July 5th to:

Melanie Crean
Director of Moving Image
45 Main St. 12th floor
Brooklyn, NY 11201

Prospective hires will interviewed in July for a late August or early
September start date. Pease address any questions to
information AT

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Limited-time offer! Subscribe to Leonardo Electronic Almanac (LEA),the
leading electronic newsletter in its field, for $35 for 2002 and receive
as a bonus free electronic access to the on-line versions of Leonardo
and the Leonardo Music Journal. Subscribe now at:

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Date: 6.26.02
From: you (automony AT
Subject: Now open to Entries; Art on the Net 2002 -- "9.11"

Art on the Net 2002
Now Open to Entries

Since 1995, Machida City Museum of Graphic Arts, Tokyo (MCMOGATK), has
been sponsoring the world's first Internet art and web contents open
competition, "Art on the Net," exploring the potentials of the Internet
as a medium of art. Twenty countries were represented in the "Art on the
Net 2001 -- Post-Cagian Interactive Sounds," and the prizes went to
Estonian and Netherlandish artists. In the past seven years since its
first show, "Art on the Net 1995," over 600 entries have been submitted
and artists from 40 countries have participated. Net art entries in each
show reflected the cutting-edge technology of that time. We believe it
has been presenting a completely new status of art created at the the
crossroads of art history, technology and the society.

The theme of the 8th "Art on the Net 2002" is "9.11." We again are open
to any entries that are experimental, that have power to turn around the
conventional concepts of art. This year, we'll take the system of
election by mutual vote --- for further details, please read our
"introductions" on our website.

Acceptance of the entries, jurying, and exibition are all done on the
Internet. The deadline for the entry is September 20, 2002. For further
information and application procedure, please visit our website:

We look forward to your entries.

you minowa

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**MUTE MAGAZINE NO. 24 OUT NOW** 'Knocking Holes in Fortress Europe',
Florian Schneider on no-border activism in the EU; Brian Holmes on
resistance to networked individualism; Alvaro de los Angeles on and Andrew Goffey on the politics of immunology. More AT

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Date: 6.21.02
From: marty AT (marty AT
Subject: ap0202.01 release

ap0202.01 release

longest day marks the release of glorious ap0202.01 beta . networked
virtual machine application for self-enacting code [artificial paradise
project ap01-02-03]


ap0202.01 presents environment/code options for specialised access to
filesystems, local and global network data, midi data, video and audio
device input, as well as the range of unix devices. both vector and
pixel output are provided under SDL [using aalib, svga, fb or x] + full
range of available devices (eg. /dev/speech).

ap0202.01 compiles and runs under gnu/linux and is available under a GPL
license. both a core cellular vm app and cellspace viewer can be

ap0202.01 is involved in the evolution of the ap performance system and

ap is concerned with the liberation of data encoding and generation from
any given model or architecture (any fixed operating system in its
widest sense)

ap02 presents a promiscuous model of data generation and self-display,
making use of a virtual machine architecture to develop and execute self
modifying instruction sets across networked nodes. Reconfigurable code
is interwoven with and determined by network and environmental data.
Nodes expand virally through diverse machine environments as they
actively seek for data across any network. The body of the work is code
(material) and in work this code is made evident, visible. The only
functionality of ap02 is in self display; showing its own changing,
performative code as it runs. ap02 is expressed within two interwoven
projects; as physical self display devices and as a freely available,
distributed networked application.

ap0202 makes use of current de-centralized p2p (peer to peer)
inter-networking technologies to implement multiple self display devices
virtually on any networked machine. The environment for the changing
code is both the network and the machine on which the software is
running. Cells of code promiscuously modify and are modified by data
available to the machine; audio input and output, video, stored
information and visual display. Code cells communicate, split and join
with other code cells both locally and across the global network,
working through a vast memory environment composed of both data and
code. ap0202 explores new models of cellular coding of great use for
future work, implementing flexible new instruction sets and questioning
the separation of data and environment from code.

ap0202 was developed as part of emare residency at v2_lab rotterdam with
the assistance of artem baguinski, stock and anne nigten. details of
ap0202 physical self-display devices can also be found at:

[please note ap0202.01 is a highly beta release. comments/ feedback and
bugs --> here pls]

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Date: 6.20.02
From: RSG (rsg AT
Subject: How We Made Our Own Carnivore

"Disobedience to authority is one of the most natural and healthy acts."
-Empire, Hardt & Negri

Ethernet was invented at the University of Hawaii. Scientists there in
the early 1970s faced a unique problem: How to network different
campuses, each on different islands separated by water.[1] The solution
was to use the free airwaves, to transmit data through the air, or
"ether," using radio. There were no wires. Like a radio station, each
node sent messages broadly over the sea to other islands. A protocol was
developed to avoid collision between simultaneous communications. Ever
since, Ethernet has been based on an open transmission model. The
protocol translated well to wire-based networks too, and is now the most
widely used local networking protocol in the world.

Since Ethernet is based on an open broadcast model, it is trivial for
listeners to make themselves "promiscuous" and eavesdrop on all
communications, not simply those specifically addressed to them. This
technique is called packet-sniffing and has been used by systems
administrators and hackers alike for decades. Ethernet, sniffers, and
hacking are at the heart of a public domain surveillance suite called
Carnivore ( developed by RSG and now used
in a civilian context by many artists and scientists around the world.


Today there are generally two things said about hackers. They are either
terrorists or libertarians. Historically the word meant an amateur
tinkerer, an autodictat who might try a dozen solutions to a problem
before eking out success.[2] Aptitude and perseverance have always
eclipsed rote knowledge in the hacking community. Hackers are the type
of technophiles you like to have around in a pinch, for given enough
time they generally can crack any problem (or at least find a suitable
kludge). Thus, as Bruce Sterling writes, the term hacker "can signify
the free-wheeling intellectual exploration of the highest and deepest
potential of computer systems."[3] Or as the glowing Steven Levy
reminisces of the original MIT hackers of the early sixties, "they were
such fascinating people. [...] Beneath their often unimposing exteriors,
they were adventurers, visionaries, risk-takers, artists...and the ones
who most clearly saw why the computer was a truly revolutionary
tool."[4] These types of hackers are freedom fighters, living by the
dictum that data wants to be free.[5] Information should not be owned,
and even if it is, non-invasive browsing of such information hurts no
one. After all, hackers merely exploit preexisting holes made by
clumsily constructed code.[6] And wouldn't the revelation of such holes
actually improve data security for everyone involved?

Yet after a combination of public technophobia and aggressive government
legislation, the identity of the hacker changed in the US in the mid to
late eighties from do-it-yourself hobbyist to digital outlaw.[7] Such
legislation includes the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 which made
it a felony to break into federal computers. "On March 5, 1986,"
reported Knight Lightning of Phrack magazine, "the following seven
phreaks were arrested in what has come to be known as the first computer
crime `sting' operation. Captain Hacker \ Doctor Bob \ Lasertech \ The
Adventurer [\] The Highwayman \ The Punisher \ The Warden."[8] "[O]n
Tuesday, July 21, 1987," Knight Lightning continued, "[a]mong 30-40
others, Bill From RNOC, Eric NYC, Solid State, Oryan QUEST, Mark
Gerardo, The Rebel, and Delta-Master have been busted by the United
States Secret Service."[9] Many of these hackers were targeted due to
their "elite" reputations, a status granted only to top hackers. Hackers
were deeply discouraged by their newfound identity as outlaws, as
exemplified in the famous 1986 hacker manifesto written by someone
calling himself[10] The Mentor: "We explore... and you call us
criminals. We seek after knowledge... and you call us criminals."[11]
Because of this semantic transformation, hackers today are commonly
referred to as terrorists, nary-do-wells who break into computers for
personal gain. So by the turn of the millennium, the term hacker had
lost all of its original meaning. Now when people say hacker, they mean

Thus, the current debate on hackers is helplessly throttled by the
discourse on contemporary liberalism: should we respect data as private
property, or should we cultivate individual freedom and leave computer
users well enough alone? Hacking is more sophisticated than that. It
suggests a future type of cultural production, one that RSG seeks to
embody in Carnivore.


Bruce Sterling writes that the late Twentieth Century is a moment of
transformation from a modern control paradigm based on centralization
and hierarchy to a postmodern one based on flexibility and

"For years now, economists and management theorists have speculated that
the tidal wave of the information revolution would destroy rigid,
pyramidal bureaucracies, where everything is top-down and centrally
controlled. Highly trained "employees" would take on greater autonomy,
being self-starting and self- motivating, moving from place to place,
task to task, with great speed and fluidity. "Ad-hocracy" would rule,
with groups of people spontaneously knitting together across
organizational lines, tackling the problem at hand, applying intense
computer- aided expertise to it, and then vanishing whence they

>From Manuel Castells to Hakim Bey to Tom Peters this rhetoric has become
commonplace. Sterling continues by claiming that both hacker groups and
the law enforcement officials that track hackers follow this new
paradigm: "they all look and act like `tiger teams' or `users' groups.'
They are all electronic ad-hocracies leaping up spontaneously to attempt
to meet a need."[13] By "tiger teams" Sterling refers to the employee
groups assembled by computer companies trying to test the security of
their computer systems. Tiger teams, in essence, simulate potential
hacker attacks, hoping to find and repair security holes. RSG is a type
of tiger team.

The term also alludes to the management style known as Toyotism
originating in Japanese automotive production facilities. Within
Toyotism, small pods of workers mass together to solve a specific
problem. The pods are not linear and fixed like the more traditional
assembly line, but rather are flexible and reconfigurable depending on
whatever problem might be posed to them.

Management expert Tom Peters notes that the most successful contemporary
corporations use these types of tiger teams, eliminating traditional
hierarchy within the organizational structure. Documenting the
management consulting agency McKinsey & Company, Peters writes:
"McKinsey is a huge company. Customers respect it. [...] But there is no
traditional hierarchy. There are no organizational charts. No job
descriptions. No policy manuals. No rules about managing client
engagements. [...] And yet all these things are well understood-make no
mistake, McKinsey is not out of control! [...] McKinsey works. It's
worked for over half a century."[14]

As Sterling suggests, the hacker community also follows this
organizational style. Hackers are autonomous agents that can mass
together in small groups to attack specific problems. As the influential
hacker magazine Phrack was keen to point out, "ANYONE can write for
Phrack Inc. [...] we do not discriminate against anyone for any
reason."[15] Flexible and versatile, the hacker pod will often dissolve
itself as quickly as it formed and disappear into the network. Thus,
what Sterling and others are arguing is that whereby older resistive
forces were engaged with "rigid, pyramidal bureaucracies," hackers
embody a different organizational management style (one that might be
called "protocological"). In this sense, while resistance during the
modern age forms around rigid hierarchies and bureaucratic power
structures, resistance during the postmodern age forms around the
protocological control forces existent in networks.


In 1967 the artist Sol LeWitt outlined his definition of conceptual art:

"In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of
the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that
all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution
is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the

LeWitt's perspective on conceptual art has important implications for
code, for in his estimation conceptual art is nothing but a type of code
for artmaking. LeWitt's art is an algorithmic process. The algorithm is
prepared in advance, and then later executed by the artist (or another
artist, for that matter). Code thus purports to be multidimensional.
Code draws a line between what is material and what is active, in
essence saying that writing (hardware) cannot do anything, but must be
transformed into code (software) to be affective. Northrop Frye says a
very similar thing about language when he writes that the process of
literary critique essentially creates a meta text, outside of the
original source material, that contains the critic's interpretations of
that text.[17] In fact Kittler defines software itself as precisely that
"logical abstraction" that exists in the negative space between people
and the hardware they use.[18]

How can code be so different than mere writing? The answer to this lies
in the unique nature of computer code. It lies not in the fact that code
is sub-linguistic, but rather that it is hyper-linguistic. Code is a
language, but a very special kind of language. Code is the only language
that is executable. As Kittler has pointed out, "[t]here exists no word
in any ordinary language which does what it says. No description of a
machine sets the machine into motion."[19] So code is the first language
that actually does what it says-it is a machine for converting meaning
into action.[20] Code has a semantic meaning, but it also has an
enactment of meaning. Thus, while natural languages such as English or
Latin only have a legible state, code has both a legible state and an
executable state. In this way, code is the summation of language plus an
executable meta-layer that encapsulates that language.


Fredric Jameson said somewhere that one of the most difficult things to
do under contemporary capitalism is to envision utopia. This is
precisely why dreaming is important. Deciding (and often struggling) for
what is possible is the first step for a utopian vision based in our
desires, based in what we want.

Pierre Lévy is one writer who has been able to articulate eloquently the
possibility of utopia in the cyberspace of digital computers.[21]
"Cyberspace," he writes, "brings with it methods of perception, feeling,
remembering, working, of playing and being together. [...] The
development of cyberspace [...] is one of the principle aesthetic and
political challenges of the coming century."[22] Lévy's visionary tone
is exactly what Jameson warns is lacking in much contemporary discourse.
The relationship between utopia and possibility is a close one. It is
necessary to know what one wants, to know what is possible to want,
before a true utopia may be envisioned.

Once of the most important signs of this utopian instinct is the hacking
community's anti-commercial bent. Software products have long been
developed and released into the public domain, with seemingly no profit
motive on the side of the authors, simply for the higher glory of the
code itself. "Spacewar was not sold," Steven Levy writes, referring to
the early video game developed by several early computer enthusiasts at
MIT. "Like any other program, it was placed in the drawer for anyone to
access, look at, and rewrite as they saw fit."[23] The limits of
personal behavior become the limits of possibility to the hacker. Thus,
it is obvious to the hacker that one's personal investment in a specific
piece of code can do nothing but hinder that code's overall development.
"Sharing of software [...] is as old as computers," writes free software
guru Richard Stallman, "just as sharing of recipes is as old as
cooking."[24] Code does not reach its apotheosis for people, but exists
within its own dimension of perfection. The hacker feels obligated to
remove all impediments, all inefficiencies that might stunt this quasi-
aesthetic growth. "In its basic assembly structure," writes Andrew Ross,
"information technology involves processing, copying, replication, and
simulation, and therefore does not recognize the concept of private
information property."[25] Commercial ownership of software is the
primary impediment hated by all hackers because it means that code is
limited-limited by intellectual property laws, limited by the profit
motive, limited by corporate "lamers."

However, greater than this anti-commercialism is a pro-protocolism.
Protocol, by definition, is "open source," the term given to a
technology that makes public the source code used in its creation. That
is to say, protocol is nothing but an elaborate instruction list of how
a given technology should work, from the inside out, from the top to the
bottom, as exemplified in the RFCs, or "Request For Comments" documents.
While many closed source technologies may appear to be protocological
due to their often monopolistic position in the market place, a true
protocol cannot be closed or proprietary. It must be paraded into full
view before all, and agreed to by all. It benefits over time through its
own technological development in the public sphere. It must exist as
pure, transparent code (or a pure description of how to fashion code).
If technology is proprietary it ceases to be protocological.

This brings us back to Carnivore, and the desire to release a public
domain version of a notorious surveillance tool thus far only available
to government operatives. The RSG Carnivore levels the playing field,
recasting art and culture as a scene of multilateral conflict rather
than unilateral domination. It opens the system up for collaboration
within and between client artists. It uses code to engulf and modify the
original FBI apparatus.

Carnivore Personal Edition

On October 1, 2001, three weeks after the 9/11 attacks in the US, the
Radical Software Group (RSG) announced the release of Carnivore, a
public domain riff on the notorious FBI software called DCS1000 (which
is commonly referred to by its nickname "Carnivore"). While the FBI
software had already been in existence for some time, and likewise RSG
had been developing it's version of the software since January 2001,
9/11 brought on a crush of new surveillance activity. Rumors surfaced
that the FBI was installing Carnivore willy-nilly on broad civilian
networks like Hotmail and AOL with the expressed purpose of intercepting
terror-related communication. As Wired News reported on September 12,
2001, "An administrator at one major network service provider said that
FBI agents showed up at his workplace on [September 11] `with a couple
of Carnivores, requesting permission to place them in our core.'"
Officials at Hotmail were reported to have been "cooperating" with FBI
monitoring requests. Inspired by this activity, the RSG's Carnivore
sought to pick up where the FBI left off, to bring this technology into
the hands of the general public for greater surveillance saturation
within culture. The first RSG Carnivore ran on Linux. An open source
schematic was posted on the net for others to build their own boxes. New
functionality was added to improve on the FBI-developed technology
(which in reality was a dumbed-down version of tools systems
administrators had been using for years). An initial core (Alex
Galloway, Mark Napier, Mark Daggett, Joshua Davis, and others) began to
build interpretive interfaces. A testing venue was selected: the private
offices of at 115 Mercer Street in New York City, only 30
blocks from Ground Zero. This space was out-of-bounds to the FBI, but
open to RSG.

The initial testing proved successful and led to more field-testing at
the Princeton Art Museum (where Carnivore was quarantined like a virus
into its own subnet) and the New Museum in New York. During the weekend
of February 1st 2002, Carnivore was used at Eyebeam to supervise the
hacktivists protesting the gathering of the World Economic Forum.

Sensing the market limitations of a Linux-only software product, RSG
released Carnivore Personal Edition (PE) for Windows on April 6, 2002.
CarnivorePE brought a new distributed architecture to the Carnivore
initiative by giving any PC user the ability to analyze and diagnose the
traffic from his or her own network. Any artist or scientist could now
use CarnivorePE as a surveillance engine to power his or her own
interpretive "Client." Soon Carnivore Clients were converting network
traffic to sound, animation, and even 3D worlds, distributing the
technology across the network.

The prospect of reverse-engineering the original FBI software was
uninteresting to RSG. Crippled by legal and ethical limitations, the FBI
software needed improvement not emulation. Thus CarnivorePE features
exciting new functionality including artist-made diagnosic clients,
remote access, full subject targetting, full data targetting, volume
buffering, transport protocol filtering, and an open source software
license. Reverse-engineering is not necessarily a simple mimetic
process, but a mental upgrade as well. RSG has no desire to copy the FBI
software and its many shortcomings. Instead, RSG longs to inject
progressive politics back into a fundamentally destabilizing and
transformative technology, packet sniffing. Our goal is to invent a new
use for data surveillance that breaks out of the hero/terrorist dilemma
and instead dreams about a future use for networked data.


[1] The system at the University of Hawaii was called ALOHAnet and was
created by Norman Abramson. Later the technology was further developed
by Robert Metcalfe at Xerox PARC and dubbed "Ethernet."

[2] Robert Graham traces the etymology of the term to the sport of golf:
"The word `hacker' started out in the 14th century to mean somebody who
was inexperienced or unskilled at a particular activity (such as a golf
hacker). In the 1970s, the word `hacker' was used by computer
enthusiasts to refer to themselves. This reflected the way enthusiasts
approach computers: they eschew formal education and play around with
the computer until they can get it to work. (In much the same way, a
golf hacker keeps hacking at the golf ball until they get it in the
hole)" (

[3] Bruce Sterling The Hacker Crackdown (New York: Bantam, 1992), p. 51.
See also Hugo Cornwall's Hacker's Handbook (London: Century, 1988),
which characterizes the hacker as a benign explorer. Cornwall's position
highlights the differing attitudes between the US and Europe, where
hacking is much less criminalized and in many cases prima facie legal.

[4] Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York:
Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984), p. ix.

[5] This slogan is attributed to Stewart Brand, who wrote that "[o]n the
one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable.
The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the
other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it
out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two
fighting against each other." See Whole Earth Review, May 1985, p. 49.

[6] Many hackers believe that commercial software products are less
carefully crafted and therefore more prone to exploits. Perhaps the most
infamous example of such an exploit, one which critiques software's
growing commercialization, is the "BackOrifice" software application
created by the hacker group Cult of the Dead Cow. A satire of
Microsoft's "Back Office" software suite, BackOrifice acts as a Trojan
Horse to allow remote access to personal computers running Microsoft's
Windows operating system.

[7] For an excellent historical analysis of this transformation see
Sterling's The Hacker Crackdown. Andrew Ross explains this
transformation by citing, as do Sterling and others, the increase of
computer viruses in the late eighties, especially "the viral attack
engineered in November 1988 by Cornell University hacker Robert Morris
on the national network system Internet. [.] While it caused little in
the way of data damage [.], the ramifications of the Internet virus have
helped to generate a moral panic that has all but transformed everyday
`computer culture.'" See Andrew Ross, Strange Weather: Culture, Science,
and Technology in the Age of Limits (New York: Verso, 1991), p. 75.

[8] Knight Lightning, "Shadows Of A Future Past," Phrack, vol. 2, no.
21, file 3.

[9] Knight Lightning, "The Judas Contract," Phrack, vol. 2, no. 22, file

[10] While many hackers use gender neutral pseudonyms, the online
magazine Phrack, with which The Mentor was associated, was characterized
by its distinctly male staff and readership. For a sociological
explanation of the gender imbalance within the hacking community, see
Paul Taylor, Hackers: Crime in the digital sublime (New York: Routledge,
1999), pp. 32-42.

[11] The Mentor, "The Conscience of a Hacker," Phrack, vol. 1, no. 7,
file 3.

[12] Sterling, The Hacker Crackdown, p. 184.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Tom Peters, Liberation Management: Necessary Disorganization for
the Nanosecond Nineties (New York: Knopf, 1992), pp. 143-144. An older,
more decentralized (rather than distributed) style of organizational
management is epitomized by Peter Drucker's classic analysis of General
Motors in the thirties and forties. He writes that "General Motors
considers decentralization a basic and universally valid concept of
order." See Peter Drucker, The Concept of the Corporation (New
Brunswick: Transaction, 1993), p. 47.

[15] "Introduction," Phrack, v. 1, no. 9, phile [sic] 1.

[16] Sol LeWitt, "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art," in Alberro, et al.,
eds., Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999),
p. 12. Thanks to Mark Tribe for bring this passage to my attention.

[17] See Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism (Princeton: Princeton UP,
1957). See also Fredric Jameson's engagement with this same subject in
"From Metaphor to Allegory" in Cynthia Davidson, Ed., Anything
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001).

[18] Friedrich Kittler, "On the Implementation of Knowledge-Toward a
Theory of Hardware," nettime

[19] Kittler, "On the Implementation of Knowledge."

[20] For an interesting commentary on the aesthetic dimensions of this
fact see Geoff Cox, Alex McLean and Adrian Ward's "The Aesthetics of
Generative Code" (

[21] Another is the delightfully schizophrenic Ted Nelson, inventor of
hypertext. See Computer Lib/Dream Machines (Redmond, WA:
Tempus/Microsoft, 1987).

[22] Pierre Lévy, L'intelligence collective: Pour une anthropologie du
cyberspace (Paris: Éditions la Découverte, 1994), p. 120, translation

[23] Levy, Hackers, p. 53. In his 1972 Rolling Stone article on the
game, Steward Brand went so far as to publish Alan Kay's source code for
Spacewar right along side his own article, a practice rarely seen in
popular publications. See Brand, "SPACEWAR," p. 58.

[24] Richard Stallman, "The GNU Project," available online at and in Chris Dibona (Editor),
et al, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (Sebastopol,
CA: O'Reilly, 1999).

[25] Ross, Strange Weather, p. 80.

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Rhizome Digest is filtered by Rachel Greene (rachel AT
ISSN: 1525-9110. Volume 7, number 26. Article submissions to
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